There are four sentence types in English: Declarative, Imperative, Interrogative and Exclamatory.
英語中有四種基本的句式:陳述句、祈使句、疑問句和感嘆句。

Declarative: Tom'll come to the meeting tomorrow.
陳述句:(湯姆明天會參加會議。)

Imperative: Turn to page 232 in your science book.
祈使句:(請把你的科學課本翻到第232頁)

Interrogative: Where do you live?
疑問句:(你住在哪里啊?)

Exclamatory: That's awesome!
感嘆句:(太棒了!)

1.Declarative
陳述句

A declarative sentence "declares" or states a fact, arrangement or opinion. Declarative sentences can be either positive or negative. A declarative sentences ends with a period (.).
陳述句是對事實、安排或觀點進行“聲明”或陳述。陳述句可以是肯定句,也可以是否定句。陳述句以句號(.)結尾。

I'll meet you at the train station.
(我們在火車站見面吧。)

The sun rises in the East.
(太陽從東方升起。)

He doesn't get up early.
(他不早起。)

2.Imperative
祈使句

The imperative form instructs (or sometimes requests). The imperative takes no subject as 'you' is the implied subject. The imperative form ends with either a period (.) or an exclamation point (!).
祈使句是發出命令(有時是要求)的一種句式。祈使句中一般沒有主語,you是隱含的主語。祈使句以句號(.)或感嘆號(!)結尾。

Open the door.
(把門打開。)

Finish your homework.
(把你的作業做完。)

Pick up that mess.
(把這亂七八糟的收拾一下。)

3.Interrogative
疑問句

The interrogative asks a question. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb precedes the subject which is then followed by the main verb (i.e., Are you coming ....?). The interrogative form ends with a question mark (?).
疑問句就是提出問題的句式。疑問句中,助動詞位于主語前面,而主語后則跟著主動詞(例如:Are you coming..?)。疑問句以問號結尾。

How long have you lived in France?
(你在法國住了多久呀?)

When does the bus leave?
(公交什么時候開走的?)

Do you enjoy listening to classical music?
(你喜歡聽古典音樂嗎?)

4.Exclamatory
感嘆句

The exclamatory form emphasizes a statement (either declarative or imperative) with an exclamation point (!).
感嘆句通過感嘆號(!)對一個陳述(陳述句或祈使句中)進行了強調。

Hurry up!
(快點!)

That sounds fantastic!
(聽起來棒極了!)

I can't believe you said that!
(我真不敢相信你會那么說!)

Sentence Structures
句型結構

Writing in English begins with the sentence. Sentences are then combined into paragraphs. Finally, paragraphs are used to write longer structures such as essays, business reports, etc.
英語寫作都是以句子開頭,句子又組成段落。最后,段落形成更長的結構,如短文、商務報告等等。

The first sentence structure is the most common:
第一種句型結構是最常見的:

1.Simple Sentences
簡單句

Simple sentences contain no conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).
簡單句中沒有連接詞(如and, but, or等)

Frank ate his dinner quickly.
(弗蘭克飛快地吃了飯。)

Peter and Sue visited the museum last Saturday.
(上個星期六,皮特和蘇去了博物館。)

Are you coming to the party??
(你會去那個派對嗎?)

2.Compound Sentences
并列復合句

Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).
復合句由兩個陳述構成,這兩個陳述由連接詞(如and, but or等)連在一起。

Practice writing compound sentences with this compound sentence writing exercise.
利用下面的練習來試著寫寫復合句。

I wanted to come, but it was late.?
(我是想來的,但晚了。)

The company had an excellent year, so they gave everyone a bonus.
(公司這年效益不錯,所以給每個人都準備了獎金。)

I went shopping, and my wife went to her classes.?
(我去購物,我妻子去上課。)

3.Complex Sentences
主從復合句

Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator (i.e, which, who, although, despite, if, since, etc.).
主從復合句中含有一個獨立的從句,且至少有一個。兩個從句由一個從屬連詞(如which, who, although, despite, if, since等)連接起來。

My daughter, who was late for class, arrived shortly after the bell rang.?
(我女兒上課遲到了,鈴聲響了一會才到。)

That's the man who bought our house.?
(就是那個男人買下了我們的房子。)

Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks.?
(雖然難度很高,這個班級還是以高分通過了測試。)

4.Compound - Complex Sentences
并列復合句—主從復合句

Compound - complex sentences contain at least one dependent clause and more than one independent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions (i.e., but, so, and, etc.) and subordinators (i.e., who, because, although, etc.)
并列復合句和主從復合句都含有一個或以上的獨立的從句。從句由連詞(如but, so, and等)和從屬連詞(如who, because, although等)

John, who briefly visited last month, won the prize, and he took a short vacation.?
(上個月短暫地拜訪的約翰,他得了獎,然后開始了短暫的假期。)

Jack forgot his friend's birthday, so he sent him a card when he finally remembered.?
(杰克忘記了朋友的生日,等他最后想起來的時候,就送了一張卡片。)

The report which Tom compiled was presented to the board, but it was rejected because it was too complex.
(湯姆編輯的那份報告被提交到了董事會,但最終因為太復雜被打回來了。)

聲明:本雙語文章的中文翻譯系滬江英語原創內容,轉載請注明出處。中文翻譯僅代表譯者個人觀點,僅供參考。如有不妥之處,歡迎指正。